In five rooms of the Museum is located the exhibition dedicated to the Russians, the largest Eastern-Slavic people inhabiting the main territory of the former Russian Empire. The introductory section illustrates the map showing distribution of the Russian populations at the beginning of the 20th century, and reveals the main stages of the Russian ethnic history. Here one can also see a gallery of historical photographs presenting Russian peasants of different age and social positions. These pictures allow viewers a rare glimpse into an atmosphere of life of provincial Russia at the turn of the 19th century.
Room 1 features the main and subsidiary occupations of the Russian peasants: agriculture, stock-raising, fishing, hunting, bee-keeping, flax-growing, as well as means of transport.
In Room 2 are on display domestic handicrafts which had been familiar all over the country not only for domestic use but also for sale. The primary products were homespun textiles, printed fabrics, wooden, clay, birch bark and metal containers, woven baskets, metal items and tools made by local smiths, felt coats and boots, bast shoes (lapti,), etc.
Room 3 is dedicated to the materials characterizing different types of peasant houses which had regional variations reflected climate and local economies. Here one can also see an elaborate carving used to decorate the main architectural elements of the fa?ade of the houses in the villages situated along the Volga River, and an interior of a peasant house with so called red corner - the best place which usually had one or several icons decorated with embroidered towels.
In the centre are placed various wooden and metal utensils and vessels used for storage, preparation, and serving food as well as tools for working with textiles and samovars in which water was boiled and kept hot for tea.
In Room 4 traditional calendar festivities closely connected with agricultural cycle and rituals attending the crucial stages of life of the Russians are represented. The most important winter festivals were Christmas, Epiphany and pagan in origin Maslenitsa (Shrovetide) - the week marking the end of Carnival and the beginning of Lent. But the most favorite and largest holiday in the year was Easter considered as the Holiday of Holidays. Presented in this room are also the materials associated with wedding and funerals.