Southern Siberia

In the history of the Great Silk Road South Siberia was important part of its northern route with developed transport system and diverse natural resources.  This territory is populated by Turkic peoples: Altaian (70800 individuals), Tuvinians (300000 individuals), Khakass (75000 individuals), Shortsi (13000 individuals), and also Byruats who speak one of Mongolian languages (620000  individual).Part of them are Christians, other  part  are Buddhists, at the same time the shaman layer remains in the worldview of all these peoples. Most of the South Siberia peoples are nomadic and semi-nomadic cattle breeders. Cattle breeding determined their ethnic profile, way of life, material and spiritual culture and their worldview in a whole. The ways of roaming differed depending on landscape and climatic particularities of the territories populated by these etnic groups: the steppe, mountain-steppe and taiga zones.  They roamed mounting horses.  In economy, rituals and beliefs of all the   Turkic and Mongolian peoples of Siberia horse played the most important role. Nomad was inseparable with it all his life long.  

 Among the South Siberian peoples cattle breeding always combined with hunting. In the economy of Altaian and ethnically related to them Shortsi hunting prevailed over other occupations. The Eastern Tuvinians (Todja) and Tofalars also practiced reindeer breeding.

 Among art craft important place belonged to metal work, treatment of leather and wool.